Noob Academic

Using natural-language processing to produce weather forecasts by E. Goldberg and N. Driedger

March 16, 2016 | 1 Minute Read

Namhlanje sizakhe sithathe umzuzu, sibuye umva ekuzameni ukwazi ukuba kubethwa abaphi kwicala lokuzama ukubonakalisa umehluko phakathi kweelwimi zesiNguni. Iphepha lanamhlanje liqwalasela ingxelo yemozulu ekhutshwa yikhompyutha. ECanada, eMelika kunye naseBhilitane kukho iiSupercomputer ezisetyenziselwa ukujonga indlela imoyezulu eqhuba ngayo. Abasasazi bemozulu bafumana ulwazi ngemo yezulu, umsebenzi wabo kukufunda olulwazi ukuze banike isishwankathelo komabona-kude kunye nakonomathotholo. Abantu abayikhatheleleyo imozulu baquka abantu nje, abafundi kunye nabanye abantu. Bakhona kodwa abantu abayikhathelele kakhulu imozulu. Aba bantu baquka amafama, abeqhubi kunye namajoni. Ulwimi olusetyenziswa kwezi zishwankathelo luxhomekeka kwintlobo yesishwankathelo luxhomekeka kwintlobo yesishwankathelo. Into ecacileyo kodwa yinto yokuba ezi zishwankathelo zisebenzisa ulwimi oluncinci kwaye alutshintshi kumaxesha athile. Bakhona abantu abadinga ulwazi oluthile kumasebe emozulu, ithi le nto lamasebe anomsebenzi omninzi ngaphezu kokushwankathela imozulu. Xa kukho iikhompyutha ezenza ezi zishwankathelo, ubomi bungaba lula. Akukho lula kodwa ukuvele uqale ukusebenzisa ezikhopyutha nokuba sele zine-program ezikwaziyo ukushwankathela. Isebe nganye libeka igama lalo esichengeni ngoba impazamo zingenza iimpazamo ezingalahlekisa abantu. Eliphepha lithetha nge-system ekuthiwa yi-Forecast Generator (FOG). Le system isebenza ngelwimi ezimbini, isiNgesi kunye nesiFrench.

Le-system sele isetynziswa kakade. Ababhali bathi akukho mehluko phakathi kwesishwankathelo esibhalwe ngumntu kunye nesikhutshwe yi-system yabo. FOG unamanyathelo amathathu xa eshwankathela; data extraction, conceptual processing kunye ne-linguistic processing. Sizokuqala ngokujonga ukuba i-data extraction bayenze njani. Phambi kokuba basebenzise i-FOG, abaxeli bemozulu bakha ii-charts ezibonisa imoyezulu yexesha elingange yure ezi-48 okanye ezi-60. I-chart nganye ibakho ifuneka rhoqo ngeyure. Kuyaziwa ukuba kunzima ukwenzwa i-chart qho ngeyure. Yiyo lo nto kumaxesha amaninzi, abaxeli bemoyezulu besenzisa ii-chart ezinye kwixesha elide. Le system isebenzisa i-animation ekuqekeleleni i-chart xa kusetyenziswa ezinye. Phambi kokuba siqhubekeke nokucacisa i-FOG, kubalulekile siveze ukuba ayisebenzi yodwa. Kukho into ekuthiwa yi-Forecast Production Assistant(FPA), le yi-system enkulu. i-FOG iphakathi kwe-FPA. I-FOG yona isebenzisa ezi-charts xa ikhupha izishwankathelo. Indawo ngaye esemhlabeni iboniswa nge-longitude, latitude pairs ezininzi. Inani eli liphakathi kwesinye nesine. Abasasazi bemoyezulu bazikhetha ngokwabo ezi-pairs xa bekhetha iindawo. I-FOG isebenzisa i-system ekuthiwa yi-Sampler xa ifuna ulwazi oluthile ngendawo. Umzekelo, ikuba ifuna i-surface air tempateure endaweni elizweni, iyifumana kwi-Sampler.