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The noun class system of isiZulu by Edith Twala

March 08, 2016 | 2 Minute Read

Umsebenzi kamama u-Edith Twala[4] uphica-phica amahlelo ezibizo kwisiZulu. Ndicinga ukuba ifani le ibizwa ngokungathi ino-H (Thwala). Isizathu salento kukuzama ukwehlula amahlelo. Ulwazi oluxelwa apha yingqokelela yezinto ekusele zisaziwa. I-chapter yokuqala izokujonga ezizinto zilandelayo:

1. yintoni ihlelo kwaye ihlelo phakathi kwelinye silazi njani
2. zeziphi iindlela ekumele siwaphawula ngayo amahlelo?
3. zisetyenziswa njani izimaphambili kunye nezimamva emahlelweni

Masiqale ngokujonga iitafile zamahlelo. Umbhali u-Grout[1] kunye nabanye benza itafile yamahlelo ezibizo. Hlelo nganye libonisa isininzi kunye nesinye sesibizo kulamahlelo. Omnye umbhali owasebenza kwelicala ngu-Doke[2]. Lo mbhali wongeza amahlelo amabini kule tafile eyayize no-Grout kunye nabanye. Ngaphez’ kokufaka amahlelo amabini, u-Doke wenze ezinye izinto. Ihlelo lesithandathu ku-Grout, u-Doke ulenze ihlelo lesibibini.

Grout noun class system

Ukuqwalasela umsebenzi ka-Doke, umntu uyabona ukuba amahlelo asithandathu anesinye kunye nesininzi. Amahlelo amane awanazo - ungacinga ukuba kungenxa yento yokuba agcina izibizo ekuthiwa esiNgesini zii-mass nouns.

Doke noun class system

U-Grout kunye nogxa bakhe abalohluli bubini ihlelo lokuqala. UTwala uthi ukuba u-Doke utsho kwacaca ukuba ihlelo lesi-9 kunye nele-10 awagcini izibizo zesiZulu ezizizo. Agcina ii-locatives. Basebenzisa eligama ndingalaziyo xa besenza umzekelo:

ukuthokozi

Bakhona ababhali abasebenzisa itafile ka-Dokes. Kodwa bayatsho ukuba lamahlelo awongezileo (9 & 10) ngawe locative adverbs, hayi izibizo. Umsebenzi ka-Meinhof ngoyena ubalaseleyo. U-Meinhof usebenzise umsebenzi ka-Bleek[3]. Nangona uDoke, Malcom, Nyembezi kunye no-Van Eeden babesohlula amahlelo ukuze abesisibhozo, babevuma kodwa ukuba umsebenzi ka-Meinhof ukuba uyenye yendlela ezikulungeleyo ukubonakalisa izibizo. Umsebenzi ka-Meinhof awudibanisi isinizi kunye nesinye sesibizo kwihlelo elinye.

Meinhof noun class system

Umbuzo esizibuza wona ngoku uthi - yintoni kanye-kanye ihlelo? Umam’ u-Twala uthi ingcaciso yokuba yintoni i-“noun class” yinto ungasoze udibane nayo. Uthi ukuba uyaqwalasela, abantu abenze iitafile zamahlelo, basebenzisa izimaphambili ezinye, umehluko abanawo ngamanani wamahlelo lawo. Uthe wokukhangela ukuba yintoni eyenza ihlelo, ufumane ezi-criteria:

Morphological, Syntantic kunye ne-Semantic

I-criteria ephambili ekwahluleni amahlelo yile i-morphological. Yiyo lo nto isibizo esiqala ngo {umu-} sizakuba kwihlelo elahlukileyo kunesibizo esiqala ngo {aba-}. I-criteria ye-syntax yona ixhomkeke kwizimaphambili/nezimamva kunye nezimelabizo. I-criteria ye-semantics iqwalasele ukuba lamagama athetha ukuthini wona.

  • [1] Grout, L , 1859, A Grammar of the Zulu Language. May and Davis: Pietermaritzburg
  • [2] Doke, CM, 1986, Textbook of Zulu Grammar. (Sixth Edition). Maskew Miller Longman, Cape Town
  • [3] Bleek, WHI, 1869, A comparative grammar of South African languages. Juta, Cape Town.
  • [4] Twala, E. 2012, The noun class system of isiZulu. (African Languages) MA. [Unpublished] University of Johannesburg.