Noob Academic

The noun class system of isiZulu by Edith Twala

March 09, 2016 | 2 Minute Read

Namhlanje sizokuqhubekeka nomsebenzi kamam’ uTwala. Zizakuqala ngokujonga ii-criteria zokwazi ukuba isibizo sihlala kweliphi ihlelo. Asizokuthetha kakhulu kodwa ngalonto. Namhlanje sizokuqwalasela izimaphambili kunye nezivumelanisi. Imifanekiso uzakuyibona apha isuka isuka kumsebenzi kaTwala[4]

Kubakho iimpikiswano ngamanye amaxesha xa usebenzisa ii-criteria ezi besithetha ngazo ku-{Part 1 : Twala}. Eyona nto sifuna ukuyithetha yinto yokuba ayikho indlela enye, eyintshatsheli ekuchaneni ukuba ihlelo yintoni. INto esiyaziyo yinto yokuba silazi okanye siluphawula ngezinto ezininzi ihlelo. Sijonga isimaphambili, isivumelanisi, isimelabizo kunye nentsingiselo yesibizo. Utwala[4] uthi ukuba siyakwazi ukuba nehlelo phakathi kwelinye (sub-class). Le nto yenzeka xa unezibizo ezinezivumelanisi kunye nezimelabizo ezinye kodwa izimaphabili zohlukile.

Ngoku sizokuqwalasela ukuba ihlelo ngalinye lithetha ntoni kwezitafile. Kwi-tafile ka-Grout[5] noogxa bakhe, ihlelo lokuqala lidilishana nezibizo ezithetha ngabantu. Ababhali bayangqinelana ukuba ihlelo lesibini lelezininzi zezibizo zehlelo lokuqala. Ulwazi oluninzi ngamanye amahlelo lungafunyanwa kumsebenzi kamam’ uTwala.

Umbhali ongugama elingu-Canonici[1] uthi ukuba izinto ezikwizivakalisi zixhomekeke kwisibizo. Okukuxhomekeka kubonakaliswa zizivumelanisi. Ezizivumelanisi zisuka kwisiaphambili sesibizo. u-Doke[2] kunye nabanye ababhali bayozohlula izivumelanisi. Zizo intlobo ezi zilandelayo:

the subject, object advjective, relative, enumerative
kunye nesivumelanisi esi-possessive.

Umbhali, uNhumayo[3], usinike izivumelanisi ezintandathu. u-Doke, kodwa, wongeze esinye yena. Xa esibiza uthi sisivumelanisi esi:

pronomial

Njengoko sisazi ukuba isimelabizo sima endaweni yesibizo. Bakhona ababhali abacinga hlukileyo. U-Canonici[1] uthi nangona sikwazi ukuma endaweni yesibizo, umsebenzi wokuqala wesimelabizo kukuma phambi kwesibizo.

Concords

Pronouns

Kwisivakalisi nganye, isenzi sinesivumelanisi esingqinelana nesibizo esiyintloko sesivakalisi. Ngaphezu koko, isenzi siyakwazi, nangona singanyanzelekanga, ukuvumelana nesibizo esiyi-object kwisivakalisi. Ababhali kunye nabathethi besiZulu abangqinelani ngezivumelanisi xa kukho ii-subject ezimbini kwisivakalisi. u-Doke[2], uNyembezi[6] kunye nabanye ababhali baze nemithetho yokwenza izinto zibelula xa une-subjects ezimbini kwisivakalisi.

  1. Kwisivakalisi apho ii-subjects zombini ingabantu, nokuba zikawaphi amahlelo (nokuba ohlukile) kufuneka usebenzise isivumelanisi esikwihlelo lesibini. Eli lingu {ba-}

  2. Xa udilishana nezilwanyana, usebenzisa isivumelanisi esikwihlelo leshumi {zi-}

  3. Xa uthetha ngezinto ezingaphiliyp zodwa, isivumelanisi esisetyenziswayo ngu {ku-}. Kubalulekile kodwa ukuba umntu aqhaphele - xa enye i-subject yesivakalisi ingumntu ophilayo, xa usebenzisa u {ku-} kuzakukhupha izivakalisi ezikrwada.

Kubakho iingxaki xa i-object okanye i-subject zininzi kwaye izizinto ezohlukileyo. Umzekelo, enye iyinto engaphiliyo, enye ingumntu ophilayo. U-Doke[2] kunye noNyembezo[6] bathi kumaxesha anjalo, isenzi kumele ukuthetha okanye ukusebenzisa isivumelanisi se-subject. Kwixesha apho zombini i-subjects zisuka kwihlelo elinye, isenzi sisebenzisa isivumelanisi sehlolo lesinizi salo magama. U-Doke[2] kunye noNyembezi[6] bathi akhona amaxesha apho kumele usebenzise isivumelanisi sesibizo esikude kune senzi - kumaxesha amaninzi, uyenza le nto kuba eso senzi sithetha ngomntu ophilayo.

  • [1] Canonici, NN. 1987, The grammatical structure of Zulu. University of Natal, Durban.
  • [2] Doke, CM, 1986, Textbook of Zulu Grammar. (Sixth Edition). Maskew Miller Longman, Cape Town
  • [3] Nhlumayo, SS. 1983, Ifonetheksi nokuhlelwa kwesiZulu. Thaderpers, King William’s Town.
  • [4] Twala, E. 2012, The noun class system of isiZulu. (African Languages) MA. [Unpublished] University of Johannesburg.
  • [5] Grout, L , 1859, A Grammar of the Zulu Language. May and Davis: Pietermaritzburg
  • [6] Nyembezi, CL. 1973, Uhlelo LwesiZulu. (Third Edition). Shuter and Shooter, Pietermaritzburg.